Since the creation of the first calculating machines, scientists, technicians, science fiction authors, philosophers, sociologists and economists anticipate and attempt to predict potential and ethics possible and/or desirable in Intelligence Artificial, now commonly called AI (or IA in French), although you can also cross the terms of Machine Learning and Data Science.
To tell the truth, if frequently the general public or the sources of information give these names for subjects that are only advanced programming, artificial Intelligence raises many questions and highlights as many fears (more or less reasoned) That of positive fascination (more or less dreamed).
Artificial Intelligence, exponential development
IA and data, what is the usefulness of the data?
The digital and other assistants like Siri or Cortana and many others are not yet an entity that can joke with you or propose the solution to all your needs, however, the Data invades at large not all the professional fields but Also what you might well consider to be private.
The data lavishes health advice, but also tips on how you do your shopping. She will soon be advising the vehicle that will provide for your transportation while you check your work day or your children’s schedule or your next vacation. The data can associate your preferences and advise you on the next video game that might interest you, or on customized content for your press review… Bots and IA may not be visible to you, but their utility and productivity is no longer to be demonstrated.
Instead, a persona is currently being used, but artificial intelligence is gradually giving the personas a “body”, the possibilities being so much richer using Data. The question here as elsewhere is woven in terms of what we want, users, humans, in terms of storage and exploitation of data, especially when it comes to ours, is not it?
IA and cybersecurity
We talk cheerfully about cybersecurity (for example you can read the article of Science and future: What role will artificial intelligence play in cybersecurity?), and the subject is of size on the methods and material, but the question is not it Especially WHO and especially how information is processed, what ethic is law, what international and national rules to protect humans from flaws as well as destructive or misinformed intentions? Here as elsewhere, it is a question of respect more than technology, because who uses this technology?
We’ve seen how criminal cases can be effectively assisted by AI. The sad business of Little Gregory, among others, has been rebounded thanks to IBM’s ANB software (analyst’s Notebook) has allowed investigators to process the data mass accumulated since 1984. The world, like many others, has relayed the information: behind the rebound of the Gregory case, using artificial intelligence.
The AI, a tool that is becoming more and more useful in critical, even vital, areas
The Data Science is an additional tool that has not only its place in security or marketing. Health data is making more and more services. We talk a lot about virtual reality (VR) and 3d printing, which literally explode the potentials of care and management of patients, but artificial intelligence and Data science also allow a significant breakthrough: Assisted medical imaging already equals human expertise, imagine the time saving of your surgeon that he can thus redistribute to concentrate on his technique and his psychological accompaniment, and also to less risk the overwork (which is not irrelevant to the two preceding points, is it not?). You can also monitor your heart rate, detect a depression from photos broadcast on the net, as explained in the Parisian article: Artificial Intelligence and Health: a thriving market.
I also invite you to read this article (in English) on ethics and AI: the Evolution and ethics of AI.
So, IA, miracle solution?
In reality, an AI alone is not currently the miracle solution, and could it be, would that be desirable? What we call to facilitate the discussion artificial Intelligence, is the basis of a sequence of code composed and conceived by humans, with the possible and imaginable biases that this includes.
If AI are tested for self-programming to learn by themselves, none has been born without the initial input of the human.
An “AI born” is still-for now-only fiction, speculative fiction, as in the cycle of Dan Simmons Les Cantos d’hypérion, where the author imagines and extrapolates an entire society evolved from this postulate.
I let you discover the rich and many other themes of this superb science fiction cycle, only a part of which can be perceived by reading this interview of Dan Simmons reproduced on the site of the Editions du non-A: meeting with Dan Simmons, the master from QI Hyperion to artificial life, the brilliant and provocative visions of the author of the great science fiction saga Hyperion.
Many authors of science fiction, and specifically anticipation who have attempted to imagine, predict what can involve the evolution of one or more AI.
The less optimistic will also remind you of movies like matrix or terminator, others will go further in questioning with the new and the films Blade Runner and Blade Runner 2049 finally arriving to ask the questions that are underlying to others:
- What is human being, and what rights and duties are derived from it in relation to ourselves and others, including the species and the environment?
- How does life develop?
- and can it develop in ways that we would not have imagined/planned yet?
Why is the AI sexist?
You will have noticed, we talk about the feminine, and the choice is not neutral. No, you’re not dreaming: why are the names and voices of virtual assistants so to speak exclusively feminine? Given the domination of the genre, one can legitimately ask the question of a will of cliché, as recalled by this interesting article of Mashable France: we do not want to break the atmosphere, but even artificial intelligence is sexist.
Biases are everywhere. We’re human. Whatever you do, you could nurture personal or cultural prejudices. For the diversity of minds, behaviors and creativity, that’s good. However, some of us are not always kind and ethical: it is a problematic bias for data and their use.
AI and anthropomorphism
We measure everything at our own scale, and the anthropomorphism is always in the picture, because even endowed with empathy, it is not simple for us to understand the universe at other scales and yardsticks than that of the human.
To conclude about the IA
Mankind has never ceased to evolve, because it is our pledge of survival. Empathy has always been a way to push us out of our bounds, not only as an individual, but as a person in a society, in a civilization, as a species.
Do we want artificial intelligence to be a tool, or do we seek to surpass ourselves?
As with any innovation or activity, finally, the important thing is finally to not lose sight of the human, is not it? On these reflections, I let you return to your activities, wishing them to be all carriers of smiles and rich memories to your human life.
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Exciting articles are written every week on the subject of artificial intelligence, as at the very moment when I finish writing these lines, so I suggest you continue the reflection by going to take a look here:
- Article of the echoes Artificial intelligence: New form of assistantship? True or false debate?
- France Culture has treated the subject in an exciting way, in particular a part of the question of the day on who should assume the decisions made by artificial intelligence?
- If you are reading English, this article may also be of interest to you on Information Age entitled Augmented Intelligence: why the human element can’t be forgotten
References to the following sources are quoted in this article: France Culture, Le Monde, Science et l’avenir, Mashable France, Journal du Net, Les Echos, Le Parisien, Wikipedia, Emarketing, Information Age, Pivigo Blog, IBM I2 Analyst’s Notebook, Apple Siri, Cortana from Microsoft, Matrix, Terminator and Blade Runner, non-A editions, Pocket editions and writer Dan Simmons.